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Nephrology Faqs

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For the kidney to be able to work properly the following are required:
• A supply of blood that needs to be cleaned
• A cleaning or filtration system to clean the blood
• A way for the cleaned blood to return to the rest of the body
• A way of allowing excess water and waste to leave the kidney and then the body Your kidneys need all four conditions to work properly. If this is not so, then urine is not produced by the kidneys and waste is not removed from the body properly. If the blood has not been cleaned when it returns to the body, waste products will accumulate and certain organs and tissues begin to be harmed. Eventually this results in illness which is generally known to as “kidney disease”. There are many different causes of kidney disease.
Examples where things can go wrong and cause kidney disease include:
• No blood supply to the kidney - the blood will not be filtered and cleaned. This can occur when the arteries supplying the blood to the kidneys become narrowed
• Blood is supplied to the kidneys but the filtration systems are not working - the blood will pass out of the kidney again, just as it went in, so no waste will have been removed. This can occur when the kidney is damaged by diseases such as “nephritis”
• When the blood has been filtered and urine made, but does not pass out – the waste products will remain in the body. This may occur as a result of a blockage (obstruction) to the tubes which drain urine from the kidney to the bladder or from the bladder to the outside. If the blockage is not relieved the kidneys will swell up and stop working.
High blood pressure (hypertension) is both an important cause and consequence of kidney disease. Indeed, for some it can be difficult to determine which came first. In those with kidney problems controlling high blood pressure is the most important measure that can be taken to reduce the risk of progressive kidney damage. Treatment of hypertension is therefore very important as it also reduces the risk of cardiovascular problems such as heart attacks and strokes.Since dialysis is a lifesaving process the decision to undergo dialysis is made in case of acute or chronic illness.
How do I choose between the different treatment options? — You, your doctor, and your family will need to work together to find the treatment that's right for you. It will depend partly on your condition, overall health, and home situation. Your doctor can explain all of your options.
People usually benefit most from a kidney transplant. But a new kidney is not always available. Plus, not everyone who wants a kidney transplant can get one. People need to meet certain conditions to be able to get a kidney transplant.
Can I choose not to have any of these treatments? — Yes, you can choose not to have any renal replacement therapy. People usually live for days to a few months without treatment, depending on their kidneys, symptoms, and overall health.
If you don't have renal replacement therapy, waste will build up in your blood. This can make you feel tired, itchy, or sick to your stomach. Fluid will also build up in your body. This can cause swelling and trouble breathing. During this time, your doctor will give you medicines to treat your symptoms and make you more comfortable.
Renal failure occurs when the kidneys fail to function properly. Normally, your kidneys work continuously to keep you alive and well. They act as filters and remove waste products from the blood and excess water from your body.
The treatments are simple – they focus on protecting renal function by the promotion of good health and lifestyle.
Treatments include the management of blood pressure and any diabetes (if it exists.) Attention is given to lifestyle – you will be encouraged to eat healthily, reduce your salt intake, become more active, exercise and stop smoking, if you haven’t already. Your doctors will measure your blood pressure and take urine and blood tests regularly to make sure your condition has stabilised. Clean and healthy lifestyle will keep your kidneys healthy.
Dialysis is a mechanical substitute for lost kidney function. When the kidneys fail to work efficiently renal failure develops, and eventually dialysis is required as a matter of priority to take over the kidney function, and so maintain life.
Dialysis will be necessary if you reach ‘end stage renal failure’. This just refers to your renal function reaching the point where you need to start dialysis to maintain good health.
There are two types of dialysis - HAEMODIALYSIS and PERITONEAL DIALYSIS.
• Haemodialysis is the removal of waste material and water using an artificial kidney linked to a dialysis machine
• Peritoneal dialysis uses the natural membrane in the abdomen called the peritoneum for dialysis
A BLOOD ACCESS is necessary for haemodialysis. It is called a fistula, which is a vein and artery surgically joined together under the skin, usually in the patient’s forearm. Once formed, this fistula needs to develop for ease of use, so it needs to be formed sometime in advance. If dialysis is required as an emergency then other forms of blood access are available for use in the short term.
A PERITONEAL ACCESS involves a soft tube being inserted permanently into the patient’s abdomen for the purpose of dialysis.
A kidney transplant is the transfer of a healthy kidney from one person into the body of a person who has little or no kidney function.
The main role of the kidneys is to filter waste products from the blood and convert them to urine. If the kidneys lose this ability, waste products can build up, which is potentially life-threatening.
This loss of kidney function, known as end-stage chronic kidney disease or kidney failure, is the most common reason for needing a kidney transplant.
Most people who need a kidney transplant are able to have one, regardless of their age, as long as:
• They're well enough to withstand the effects of surgery
• The transplant has a relatively good chance of success
• The person is willing to comply with the recommended treatments required after the transplant – such as taking immunosuppressant medication and attending regular follow-up appointments

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Prashanth Hospitals-Multispeciality Hospital in Chennai, Best Hospital in Chennai

Prashanth Hospitals-Multispeciality Hospital in Chennai, Best Hospital in Chennai