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Medical Treatment

Upper GI Endoscopy is done to detect

  • GERD
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Anaemia
  • Bleeding in the upper GI tract
  • Ulcers
  • Abnormal growths
  • Obstruction
  • Hiatal hernia
    • Varices ( Sclerotherapy / Banding / Glue Injection )
    • Esophageal stenting for malignant obstruction
    • Percutaneous endoscopic gastrotomy (PEG )

    Colonoscopy is done to detect

    • Unexplained changes in bowel habits
    • Bleeding in lower GI
    • Unexplained weight loss
    • Fissures
    • Piles
    • Abnormal growths
    • Polyps
    • Diverticulum


    Polyps are abnormal growths of tissue, which vary in size. If the removal of the polyp is indicated, a wire loop through the colonoscope and the attachment of the polyp to the intestinal wall is removed by means of an electrical cautery. If additional polyps are detected, they may be removed as well. No pain should be felt during removal of the polyp. Polyps are usually removed because they can cause rectal bleeding or may contain cancer. Although the majority of polyps are benign (noncancerous), a small percentage may contain an area of cancer in them or may develop into cancer. Removal of colon polyps, therefore, is an important means of prevention and cure of colon cancer.

    Colonic stenting

    colonic stent is a hollow cylindrical tube, usually made of metal or an alloy which helps to keep the lumen of the large bowel open. A colonic stent is used to relieve complete or partial large bowel blockage. The stent is compressed tightly onto a small delivery wire which allows the stent to be positioned across the tight narrowing which has caused the blockage. Once opened, it relieves the obstruction by keeping the colon open. It can take up to 24 hours for the stent to fully open.

    E R C P (Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangio Pancreatography)

    Removal of CBD stones

    An endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatogram (ERCP) test checks the tubes (ducts) that drain the liver gallbladder , and pancreas . A flexible, lighted scope (endoscope) and X-ray pictures are used.

    The scope is put through the mouth and gently moved down the throat. It goes into your esophagus , stomach, and duodenum until it reaches the point where the ducts from the pancreas and gallbladder drain into the duodenum. X-rays will then be taken.

    ERCP can treat certain problems found during the test. In some cases small tool can be inserted through the scope to:

    • Take a sample of tissue (biopsy) from an abnormal growth. Then it can be checked for problems.
    • Remove a gallstone in the common bile duct.
    • Open a narrowed bile duct. A narrowed bile duct can be opened by inserting a small wire-mesh or plastic tube (called a stent) in the duct.

    CBD stenting

    On occasion, stents are placed for management of bile leaks. They are placed to provide internal drainage, eliminating the need for an external catheter. Recurrent jaundice or cholangitis due to obstruction of the stents is the major limitation of biliary stents. This stent is a drainage tube that is placed in the bile duct or the pancreatic duct to hold the duct open and allow it to drain.

    Pancreatic duct stenting

    Pancreatic cancer can sometimes cause pressure on the bile duct and block it.

    This causes jaundice, which can cause:

    • yellowing or darkening of the skin and whites of your eyes
    • feeling sick
    • loss of appetite
    • darkened urine
    • pale coloured stools
    • itching
    • lethargy and tiredness

    A small flexible plastic or metal tube (stent)is sent into the bile duct which allows the bile to flow into the bowel and reduces the symptoms of jaundice. Having a stent put in is generally a simple procedure. It is often done during an ERCP (endoscopic retrograde cholangio pancreatography).

    This is the current gold standard for diagnosis of Gastroesophageal Reflux disease.The esophageal pH test is an outpatient procedure performed to measure the amount of acid that flows into the esophagus from the stomach during a 24-hour period.

    The procedure is commonly used to help confirm the diagnosis of GERD or to identify the cause of various symptoms, including:

    • Heartburn , primarily in patients who have had a normal endoscopy and who have failed medical treatment or may be considered as candidates for surgery
    • Uncommon symptoms of GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease), such as chest pain, chronic cough, asthma, and other throat symptoms