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Obstetrics and Gynecology Disease and Treatments

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Hysterectomy often includes removal of the cervix as well as the uterus. When the surgeon also removes one or both ovaries and Fallopian tubes, it’s called a total hysterectomy with salpingo-oophorectomy . All these organs are part of your reproductive system and are located in your pelvis.

Abdominal hysterectomy is a surgical procedure that removes your uterus through an incision in your lower abdomen. A partial hysterectomy removes just the uterus, leaving the cervix intact. A total hysterectomy removes the uterus and the cervix.

An abdominal hysterectomy may be recommended over other types of hysterectomy if :

• You have a large uterus.

• Your doctor wants to check other pelvic organs for signs of disease.

• Your surgeon feels it’s in your best interest to have an abdominal hysterectomy.


Vaginal hysterectomy is a surgical procedure to remove the uterus through the vagina. During a vaginal hysterectomy, the surgeon detaches the uterus from the ovaries, Fallopian tubes and upper vagina, as well as from the blood vessels and connective tissue that support it. The uterus is then removed through the vagina. However, if your uterus is enlarged, vaginal hysterectomy may not be possible and your doctor will talk to you about other surgical options, such as an abdominal hysterectomy.

A Pap smear is a procedure to test for cervical cancer in women. It involves collecting cells from your cervix . Detecting cervical cancer early with a Pap smear gives you a greater chance at a cure. Detecting these abnormal cells early with a Pap smear is your first step in halting the possible development of cervical cancer A Pap smear can also detect changes in your cervical cells that suggest cancer may develop in the future..

Endometriosis is an often painful disorder in which tissue that normally lines the inside of your uterus grows outside your uterus. Endometriosis most commonly involves your ovaries, fallopian tubes and the tissue lining your pelvis. Rarely, endometrial tissue may spread beyond pelvic organs.

With endometriosis, displaced endometrial tissue continues to act as it normally would , it thickens, breaks down and bleeds with each menstrual cycle. As this is displaced tissue , it has no way to exit your body, it becomes trapped. When endometriosis involves the ovaries, cysts called endometriomas may form. Surrounding tissue can eventually developing scar tissue and causing pelvic tissues and organs to stick to each other.

Endometriosis can cause pain , sometimes severe and especially during your period. It is one main cause for infertility.




Also called: uterina myoma

Non-cancerous growths in the uterus that can develop during a woman’s
childbearing years.

treatable by medicalTreatable by a medical professional

treatable by medicalRequires a medical diagnosis

treatable by medicalLab tests or imaging often required

treatable by medicalChronic: can last for years or be lifelong

The cause of fibroids isn’t well understood. Risk factors include a family history of fibroids, obesity or early onset of puberty. Symptoms include heavy menstrual bleeding, prolonged periods and pelvic pain. In some cases, there are no symptoms. Treatments include medication and removal of the fibroid.

Ages Affected



Requires a medical diagnosis

Symptoms include heavy menstrual bleeding, prolonged periods and pelvic pain. In some cases, there are no symptoms.

People may experience:

Pain areas: in the abdomen, lower back, or pelvis

Pain circumstances: can occur during sexual intercourse

Menstrual: abnormal menstruation, heavy menstruation, irregular menstruation, painful menstruation, or spotting

Also common: abdominal distension, abnormal vaginal bleeding, or

Urinary incontinence or loss of bladder control is a common and often embarrassing problem. The severity ranges from occasionally leaking urine when you cough or sneeze to having an urge to urinate that’s so sudden and strong you don’t get to a toilet in time.

If urinary incontinence affects your daily activities, don’t hesitate to see your doctor. For most people, simple lifestyle changes or medical treatment can ease discomfort or stop urinary incontinence.

Types of urinary incontinence include:

• Stress incontinence

• Urge incontinence

• Overflow incontinence

Its important to seek medical advise if incontinence is frequent or is affecting your quality of life.


Urinary Tract Infection

A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection in any part of your urinary system, kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra. Most infections involve the lower urinary tract – the bladder and the urethra.

Women are at greater risk of developing a UTI than men are. Infection limited to your bladder can be painful and serious consequences can occur if a UTI spreads to your kidneys.

Doctors typically treat urinary tract infections with antibiotics. But you can take steps to reduce your chances of getting a UTI in the first place.


Uterine prolapse occurs when the uterus sags or slips from its normal position and into the vagina, or birth canal. Uterine prolapse may be incomplete or complete. An incomplete prolapse occurs when the uterus is only partly sagging into the vagina. A complete prolapse describes a situation in which the uterus falls so far down that some tissue rests outside of the vagina.


• Feeling like you’re sitting on a ball

• Vaginal bleeding

• Increased discharge

• Problems with sexual intercourse

• Seeing the uterus or cervix coming out of the vagina

• A pulling or heavy feeling in the pelvis

• Constipation

• Recurrent bladder infections


Treatment isn’t always necessary for this condition. If prolapse is severe, talk with your doctor about which treatment option is appropriate for you.

Nonsurgical treatments include:

• losing weight to take stress off of pelvic structures

• avoiding heavy lifting

• doing Kegel exercises, which are pelvic floor exercises that help strengthen the vaginal muscles

• taking estrogen replacement therapy

• wearing a pessary, which is a device inserted into the vagina that fits under the cervix and helps push up and stabilize the uterus and cervix

Surgical treatments include uterine suspension or hysterectomy. During uterine suspension, your surgeon places the uterus back into its original position by reattaching pelvic ligaments or using surgical materials. During a hysterectomy, your surgeon removes the uterus from the body through the abdomen or the vagina.

Surgery is often effective, but it’s not recommended for women who plan on having children in the future. Pregnancy and childbirth can put an immense strain on pelvic muscles, which can undo surgical repairs of the uterus.


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